Apple Keyboard – Quick Reference

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Keyboard Shortcuts Quick Reference

Table A-1 lists the system-reserved and commonly used keyboard shortcuts mentioned in the rest of this document.

As you implement keyboard shortcuts in your application, use this table to find:

  • Which key sequences are reserved by Mac OS X.Users rely on these shortcuts to perform the specified actions no matter which application is currently running (these include shortcuts reserved for accessibility purposes). Do not override these shortcuts.
  • Which key sequences are recommended for common application tasks.Users expect these shortcuts to mean the same thing from application to application. Provide these shortcuts if your application performs the associated tasks. You should avoid using these shortcuts for other purposes.

If a keyboard sequence is not listed in Table A-1, you can use it for a frequently used command in your application, if a shortcut is appropriate. For guidance on creating new keyboard shortcuts, see “Creating Your Own Keyboard Shortcuts”. Be aware, however, that Apple may reserve other keyboard shortcuts in the future. For more information on the system-reserved keyboard shortcuts, see “Reserved Keyboard Shortcuts”.

Note: With the exception of the system-reserved function keys F9, F10, F11, and F12, Table A-1 lists only combinations of two or more keys. For information on how to use specific single keys (such as Tab and Return), see “The Functions of Specific Keys”.

Table A-1 groups together the primary key that is modified and variations of key sequences based on the primary key. In the interests of space, the table uses the following symbols to represent the modifier keys (these are the same symbols menus display):

  • ../Art/ks_command.gif (Command)
  • ../Art/ks_control.gif (Control)
  • ../Art/ks_option.gif (Option)
  • ../Art/ks_shift.gif (Shift)

Some shortcuts in Table A-1 are accompanied by an ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif icon. This means that you should not override the shortcut because the operating system uses it in some way.

A shortcut in Table A-1 that is not accompanied by an ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif icon is recommended for applications that perform the associated task. If your application does not perform the task associated with a recommended shortcut, you should not use that shortcut to mean something else.

Primary key Key sequence Associated action
Space bar ../Art/ks_command.gif Space ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Show or hide the Spotlight search field (when multiple languages are installed, may rotate through enabled script systems).
../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif Space ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Apple reserved.
../Art/ks_option.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif Space ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Show the Spotlight search results window (when multiple languages are installed, may rotate through keyboard layouts and input methods within a script).
../Art/ks_control.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif Space ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Apple reserved.
Tab ../Art/ks_shift.gif Tab ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Navigate through controls in a reverse direction. See “Keyboard Focus and Navigation”.
../Art/ks_command.gif Tab ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Move forward to the next most recently used application in a list of open applications.
../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif Tab ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Move backward through a list of open applications (sorted by recent use).
../Art/ks_control.gif Tab ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Move focus to the next grouping of controls in a dialog or the next table (when Tab moves to the next cell). See Accessibility Overview.
../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_control.gif Tab ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Move focus to the previous grouping of controls. See Accessibility Overview.
Esc ../Art/ks_command.gif Esc ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Open Front Row.
../Art/ks_option.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif Esc ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Open the Force Quit dialog.
Eject ../Art/ks_control.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif Eject ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Quit all applications (after giving the user a chance to save changes to open documents) and restart the computer.
../Art/ks_control.gif ../Art/ks_option.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif Eject ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Quit all applications (after giving the user a chance to save changes to open documents) and shut the computer down.
F1 ../Art/ks_control.gif F1 ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Toggle full keyboard access on or off. See Accessibility Overview.
F2 ../Art/ks_control.gif F2 ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Move focus to the menu bar. See Accessibility Overview.
F3 ../Art/ks_control.gif F3 ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Move focus to the Dock. See Accessibility Overview.
F4 ../Art/ks_control.gif F4 ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Move focus to the active (or next) window. See Accessibility Overview.
../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_control.gif F4 ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Move focus to the previously active window. See Accessibility Overview.
F5 ../Art/ks_control.gif F5 ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Move focus to the toolbar. See Accessibility Overview.
../Art/ks_command.gif F5 ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Turn VoiceOver on or off. See Accessibility Overview.
F6 ../Art/ks_control.gif F6 ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Move focus to the first (or next) utility window. See Accessibility Overview.
../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_control.gif F6 ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Move focus to the previous utility window. See Accessibility Overview.
F7 ../Art/ks_control.gif F7 ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Temporarily override the current keyboard access mode in windows and dialogs. See Accessibility Overview.
F9 ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Tile or untile all open windows.
F10 ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Tile or untile all open windows in the currently active application.
F11 ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Hide or show all open windows.
F12 ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Hide or display Dashboard.
`(grave accent) ../Art/ks_command.gif ` ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Activate the next open window in the frontmost application. See “Window Layering”.
../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif ` ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Activate the previous open window in the frontmost application. See “Window Layering”.
../Art/ks_option.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif ` ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Move focus to the window drawer.
(hyphen) ../Art/ks_command.gif ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Decrease the size of the selected item (equivalent to the Smaller command). See “The Format Menu”.
../Art/ks_option.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Zoom out when screen zooming is on. See Accessibility Overview.
{ (left bracket) ../Art/ks_command.gif { Left-align a selection (equivalent to the Align Left command). See “The Format Menu”.
} (right bracket) ../Art/ks_command.gif } Right-align a selection (equivalent to the Align Right command). See “The Format Menu”.
| (pipe) ../Art/ks_command.gif | Center-align a selection (equivalent to the Align Center command). See “The Format Menu”.
: (colon) ../Art/ks_command.gif : Display the Spelling window (equivalent to the Spelling command). See “The Edit Menu”.
; (semicolon) ../Art/ks_command.gif ; Find misspelled words in the document (equivalent to the Check Spelling command). See “The Edit Menu”.
, (comma) ../Art/ks_command.gif , Open the application’s preferences window (equivalent to the Preferences command). See “The Application Menu”.
../Art/ks_option.gif ../Art/ks_control.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif , ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Decrease screen contrast. See Accessibility Overview.
. (period) ../Art/ks_option.gif ../Art/ks_control.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif . ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Increase screen contrast. See Accessibility Overview.
? (question mark) ../Art/ks_command.gif ? Open the application’s help in Help Viewer. See “The Help Menu”.
/ (forward slash) ../Art/ks_option.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif / ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Turn font smoothing on or off.
= (equal sign) ../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif = ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Increase the size of the selected item (equivalent to the Bigger command). See “The Format Menu”.
../Art/ks_option.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif = ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Zoom in when screen zooming is on. See Accessibility Overview.
3 ../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif 3 ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Capture the screen to a file.
../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_control.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif 3 ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Capture the screen to the Clipboard.
4 ../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif 4 ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Capture a selection to a file.
../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_control.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif 4 ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Capture a selection to the Clipboard.
8 ../Art/ks_option.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif 8 ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Turn screen zooming on or off. See Accessibility Overview.
../Art/ks_option.gif ../Art/ks_control.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif 8 ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Invert the screen colors. See Accessibility Overview.
A ../Art/ks_command.gif A Highlight every item in a document or window, or all characters in a text field (equivalent to the Select All command). See “The Edit Menu”.
B ../Art/ks_command.gif B Boldface the selected text or toggle boldfaced text on and off (equivalent to the Bold command). See “The Edit Menu”.
C ../Art/ks_command.gif C Duplicate the selected data and store on the Clipboard (equivalent to the Copy command). See “The Edit Menu”.
../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif C Display the Colors window (equivalent to the Show Colors command). See “The Format Menu”.
../Art/ks_option.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif C Copy the style of the selected text (equivalent to the Copy Style command). See “The Format Menu”.
../Art/ks_control.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif C Copy the formatting settings of the selected item and store on the Clipboard (equivalent to the Copy Ruler command). See “The Format Menu”.
D ../Art/ks_option.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif D ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Show or hide the Dock. See “The Dock”.
../Art/ks_command.gif ../Art/ks_control.gif D Display the definition of the selected word in the Dictionary application.
E ../Art/ks_command.gif E Use the selection for a find operation. See “Find Windows”.
F ../Art/ks_command.gif F Open a Find window (equivalent to the Find command). See “The Edit Menu”.
../Art/ks_option.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif F Jump to the search field control. See “Search Fields ”.
G ../Art/ks_command.gif G Find the next occurrence of the selection (equivalent to the Find Next command). See “The Edit Menu”.
../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif G Find the previous occurrence of the selection (equivalent to the Find Previous command). See “The Edit Menu”.
H ../Art/ks_command.gif H Hide the windows of the currently running application (equivalent to the Hide ApplicationName command). See “The Application Menu”.
../Art/ks_option.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif H Hide the windows of all other running applications (equivalent to the Hide Others command). See “The Application Menu”.
I ../Art/ks_command.gif I Italicize the selected text or toggle italic text on or off (equivalent to the Italic command). See “The Format Menu”.
../Art/ks_command.gif I Display an Info window. See “Info Windows”.
../Art/ks_option.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif I Display an inspector window. See “Inspector Windows”.
J ../Art/ks_command.gif J Scroll to a selection.
M ../Art/ks_command.gif M Minimize the active window to the Dock (equivalent to the Minimize command). See “The Window Menu”.
../Art/ks_option.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif M Minimize all windows of the active application to the Dock (equivalent to the Minimize All command). See “The Window Menu”.
N ../Art/ks_command.gif N Open a new document (equivalent to the New command). See “The File Menu”.
O ../Art/ks_command.gif O Display a dialog for choosing a document to open (equivalent to the Open command). See “The File Menu”.
P ../Art/ks_command.gif P Display the Print dialog (equivalent to the Print command). See “The File Menu”.
../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif P Display a dialog for specifying printing parameters (equivalent to the Page Setup command). See “The File Menu”.
Q ../Art/ks_command.gif Q Quit the application (equivalent to the Quit command). See “The Application Menu”.
../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif Q ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Log out the current user (equivalent to the Log Out command).
../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_option.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif Q ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Log out the current user without confirmation.
S ../Art/ks_command.gif S Save the active document (equivalent to the Save command). See “The File Menu”.
../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif S Display the Save dialog (equivalent to the Save As command). See “The File Menu”.
T ../Art/ks_command.gif T Display the Fonts window (equivalent to the Show Fonts command). See “The Format Menu”.
../Art/ks_option.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif T Show or hide a toolbar (equivalent to the Show/Hide Toolbar command). See “The View Menu” and “Toolbars”.
U ../Art/ks_command.gif U Underline the selected text or turn underlining on or off (equivalent to the Underline command). See “The Format Menu”.
V ../Art/ks_command.gif V Insert the Clipboard contents at the insertion point (equivalent to the Paste command). See “The File Menu”.
../Art/ks_option.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif V Apply the style of one object to the selected object (equivalent to the Paste Style command). See “The Format Menu”.
../Art/ks_option.gif ../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif V Apply the style of the surrounding text to the inserted object (equivalent to the Paste and Match Style command). See “The Edit Menu”.
../Art/ks_control.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif V Apply formatting settings to the selected object (equivalent to the Paste Ruler command). See “The Format Menu”.
W ../Art/ks_command.gif W Close the active window (equivalent to the Close command). See “The File Menu”.
../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif W Close a file and its associated windows (equivalent to the Close File command). See “The File Menu”.
../Art/ks_option.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif W Close all windows in the application (equivalent to the Close All command). See “The File Menu”.
X ../Art/ks_command.gif X Remove the selection and store on the Clipboard (equivalent to the Cut command). See “The Edit Menu”.
Z ../Art/ks_command.gif Z Reverse the effect of the user’s previous operation (equivalent to the Undo command). See “The Edit Menu”.
../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif Z Reverse the effect of the last Undo command (equivalent to the Redo command). See “The Edit Menu”.
../Art/ks_arrow_right.gif (right arrow) ../Art/ks_command.gif ../Art/ks_arrow_right.gif ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Change the keyboard layout to current layout of Roman script.
../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif ../Art/ks_arrow_right.gif ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Extend selection to the next semantic unit, typically the end of the current line.
../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_arrow_right.gif ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Extend selection one character to the right.
../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_option.gif ../Art/ks_arrow_right.gif ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Extend selection to the end of the current word, then to the end of the next word.
../Art/ks_control.gif ../Art/ks_arrow_right.gif ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Move focus to another value or cell within a view, such as a table. See Accessibility Overview.
../Art/ks_arrow_left.gif (left arrow) ../Art/ks_command.gif ../Art/ks_arrow_left.gif ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Change the keyboard layout to current layout of system script.
../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif ../Art/ks_arrow_left.gif ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Extend selection to the previous semantic unit, typically the beginning of the current line.
../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_arrow_left.gif ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Extend selection one character to the left.
../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_option.gif ../Art/ks_arrow_left.gif ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Extend selection to the beginning of the current word, then to the beginning of the previous word.
../Art/ks_control.gif ../Art/ks_arrow_left.gif ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Move focus to another value or cell within a view, such as a table. See Accessibility Overview.
../Art/ks_arrow_up.gif (up arrow) ../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif ../Art/ks_arrow_up.gif ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Extend selection upward in the next semantic unit, typically the beginning of the document.
../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_arrow_up.gif ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Extend selection to the line above, to the nearest character boundary at the same horizontal location.
../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_option.gif ../Art/ks_arrow_up.gif ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Extend selection to the beginning of the current paragraph, then to the beginning of the next paragraph.
../Art/ks_control.gif ../Art/ks_arrow_up.gif ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Move focus to another value or cell within a view, such as a table. See Accessibility Overview.
../Art/ks_arrow_down.gif (down arrow) ../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_command.gif ../Art/ks_arrow_down.gif ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Extend selection downward in the next semantic unit, typically the end of the document.
../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_arrow_down.gif ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Extend selection to the line below, to the nearest character boundary at the same horizontal location.
../Art/ks_shift.gif ../Art/ks_option.gif ../Art/ks_arrow_down.gif ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Extend selection to the end of the current paragraph, then to the end of the next paragraph (include the blank line between paragraphs in cut, copy, and paste operations).
../Art/ks_control.gif ../Art/ks_arrow_down.gif ../Art/ks_apple_icon.gif Move focus to another value or cell within a view, such as a table. See Accessibility Overview.
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